This page lists resources for citing using APA style. If your instructor would like you to use another citation style (such as MLA, Chicago, or McGill) please see our general Citation Research Guide linked below:
Please visit the Library to find a physical copy of the most recent edition of the official APA style manual.
For citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers, see the APA templates below.
Last name, First initial. Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.
Cardinal, D. Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.
The in-text citation should follow the same guidelines noted for a paraphrase or direct quote.
Name of Elder/Knowledge Keeper with year of communication.
Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2018).
The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2018).
Templates taken from:
MacLeod, L. (2021). More Than Personal Communication: Templates For Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies, 5(1), 1-5.
Norquest College Library. (2022, February 8). APA 7th edition: In-text citations. https://libguides.norquest.ca/apa/cite#IDG
For help writing your assignments, including citing and formatting using APA style, book an appointment with a writing specialist through Student Academic Learning Services (SALS).